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We monitored expression of PD-1 (a mediator of T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence) on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from blood and liver during acute and chronic infections and after the resolved infection stage. PD-1 expression on HCV-specific T cells was high early in acute infection irrespective of clinical outcome, and most cells continued to express PD-1 in resolved and chronic stages of infection; intrahepatic expression levels were especially high. Our results suggest that an analysis of PD-1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict infection outcome or to determine T-cell functionality in HCV infection.

Original publication




Journal article


J Virol

Publication Date





3154 - 3160


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Antigens, CD, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Biomarkers, CD28 Antigens, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Female, Hepacivirus, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C, Chronic, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Liver, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Prognosis, Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor