Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Snakebite envenoming is a serious problem in Myanmar. The great majority of snakebite in this country is due to Russell's Viper (Daboia siamensis). For many years, the Burma Pharmaceutical Industry has produced a monovalent antivenom to Russell's Viper in horses. At present, the only way of determining the level of antibody against D. siamensis venom in hyperimmune horse serum is to perform venom neutralisation tests in mice. In this study, we describe the development of an in vitro ELISA assay to estimate neutralising capacity of horse serum. We found a strong correlation between the ELISA assay and the venom neutralisation test in mice (r = 0.982). The assay is robust and has sufficient sensitivity (92%) and specificity (96%) to replace the venom neutralisation test in mice during the immunisation phase in horses.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





163 - 168


Antivenom, Daboia siamensis, ELISA, Myanmar, Russell's Viper, Snakebite, Animals, Antibodies, Antivenins, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Horses, Immunization, Russell's Viper, Viper Venoms