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The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease correlates with increased numbers of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the lung parenchyma. CD8(+) T lymphocytes release IFN-gamma which stimulates airway epithelial cells to produce CXCR3 chemokines leading to further recruitment of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. To evaluate the signaling pathways involved in regulation of CXCR3 ligands, the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was stimulated with IFN-gamma and the release of the CXCR3 ligands was measured by ELISA. The release of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 was inhibited by an IkappaB kinase 2 (IKK2) selective inhibitor 2-[(Aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-[4-fluorophenyl]-3-thiophenecarboxamide (TPCA-1) (EC(50) values were 0.50 +/- 0.03, 0.17 +/- 0.06, and 0.45 +/- 0.10 microM, respectively (n = 6)) and an IKK1/2 selective inhibitor 2-amino-6-(2'cyclopropylemethoxy-6'-hydroxy-phenyl)-4-piperidin-3-yl-pyridine-3-carbonitrile (EC(50) values 0.74 +/- 0.40, 0.27 +/- 0.06, and 0.88 +/- 0.29 microM, respectively (n = 6)). The glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone had no effect on CXCR3 ligand release. The release of CXCL10 was most sensitive to inhibition by IKK2 and a role for IKK2 in CXCL10 release was confirmed by overexpression of dominant-negative adenoviral constructs to IKK2 (68.2 +/- 8.3% n = 5), but not of IKK1. Neither phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, translocation of p65 to the nucleus, or activation of a NF-kappaB-dependent reporter (Ad-NF-kappaB-luc) were detected following stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with IFN-gamma. These data suggest that IKK2 is also involved in the IFN-gamma-stimulated release of the CXCR3 ligands through a novel mechanism that is independent NF-kappaB.

Original publication




Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





6237 - 6245


Amides, Animals, Bronchi, Cells, Cultured, Chemokines, Dexamethasone, Epithelial Cells, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, I-kappa B Kinase, Interferon-gamma, Ligands, NF-kappa B, Phosphorylation, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Protein Transport, RNA, Messenger, Receptors, CXCR3, STAT1 Transcription Factor, Signal Transduction, Thiophenes