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Laryngeal, intercostal and diaphragmatic muscle activities were recorded during progressive hypercapnia and hypoxia in dogs with chronically implanted electrodes. As ventilation increased during progressive chemoreceptor stimulation, inspiratory activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, a laryngeal abductor, and of the cricothyroid muscle were augmented. When expiratory flow rates reached 2-3 times resting levels, both of these muscles were also active during expiration and recruitment of the internal intercostal muscles was observed. The thyroarytenoid muscle, a laryngeal adductor, was active only rarely and no consistent activation of this muscle was observed with either hypercapnia or hypoxia. The patterns of muscle activation in response to respiratory stimulation were not different during wakefulness, slow wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep. The results indicate that the laryngeal muscles are activated during hypercapnia and hypoxia in a manner which reduces both inspiratory and expiratory airflow resistance regardless of sleep-wakefulness state.


Journal article


Respir Physiol

Publication Date





327 - 339


Animals, Dogs, Hypercapnia, Hypoxia, Laryngeal Muscles, Muscles, Sleep, Wakefulness