Blood Pressure Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: Data from 4 Randomised Controlled CPAP Withdrawal Trials
Lettau F., Schwarz EI., Stradling JR., Kohler M.
© 2017 S. Karger AG, BaselBackground: Increased daytime blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular risk. Preliminary data suggest that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) might contribute to increased daytime BPV. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy withdrawal on daytime BPV. Methods: A total of 183 patients previously diagnosed with OSA and treated with CPAP were randomised to either continue or withdraw from CPAP within 4 trials. Office morning BP was measured in triplicate at baseline and at follow-up (day 14). In addition, the participants performed BP measurements at home on a daily basis (days 1-13). The main outcome of interest was the treatment effect on within-visit BPV expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of the triplicate measurements. Additional outcomes included morning home BPV and day-to-day home BPV. Results: Within-visit variability in systolic BP significantly increased in response to recurrence of OSA in the CPAP withdrawal group (difference between groups in SD of systolic BPV, +1.14 mm Hg, 95% CI +0.20/+2.09, p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant effect on within-visit variability in diastolic BP (p = 0.38) or heart rate (p = 0.07). Neither morning home BP variability (systolic BPV, p = 0.81; diastolic BPV, p = 0.46) nor day-to-day variability in home BP measurements (systolic BPV, p = 0.61; diastolic BPV, p = 0.58) differed significantly between the groups. Conclusion: CPAP withdrawal results in a minor increase in within-visit variability in office systolic BP, but it has no effect on home BPV or day-to-day BPV. Although the treatment effect may be blunted by antihypertensives, it is unlikely that OSA contributes to cardiovascular risk via elevated daytime BPV.