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PARV4 is a recently discovered human parvovirus widely distributed in injecting drug users in the USA and Europe, particularly in those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like parvovirus B19, PARV4 persists in previously exposed individuals. In bone marrow and lymphoid tissue, PARV4 sequences were detected in two sub-Saharan African study subjects with AIDS but without a reported history of parenteral exposure and who were uninfected with hepatitis C virus. PARV4 variants infecting these subjects were phylogenetically distinct from genotypes 1 and 2 (formerly PARV5) that were reported previously. Analysis of near-complete genome sequences demonstrated that they should be classified as a third (equidistant) PARV4 genotype. The availability of a further near-complete genome sequence of this novel genotype facilitated identification of conserved novel open reading frames embedded in the ORF2 coding sequence; one encoded a putative protein with identifiable homology to SAT proteins of members of the genus Parvovirus.

Original publication




Journal article


J Gen Virol

Publication Date





2299 - 2302


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Africa South of the Sahara, Amino Acid Sequence, Genotype, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading Frames, Parvoviridae Infections, Parvovirus, Phylogeny, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid