Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Every year, snake-bites kill more than 100,000 people, while survivors suffer physical and mental sequelae; insects cause over 5000 anaphylactic deaths, scorpion-stings kill more than 1000 and spiders and jellyfish kill hundreds. Aquatic venomous animals include sea-snakes, fish, jellyfish, corals, cone shells, blue-ringed octopuses and sea urchins. Specific antidotes - hyperimmune serum antivenoms - are manufactured for serious envenoming. Adrenaline (epinephrine) is essential treatment for anaphylaxis. Cardiorespiratory and kidney failure require supportive treatment. Surgical intervention is rarely needed. Prevention is all important; community education can reduce risk by encouraging the use of protective clothing, lights after dark, bed nets and urgent medical treatment rather than traditional remedies.

Original publication




Journal article


Medicine (United Kingdom)

Publication Date





120 - 124