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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Every year, snake-bites kill more than 100,000 people, while survivors suffer physical and mental sequelae; insects cause over 5000 anaphylactic deaths, scorpion-stings kill more than 1000 and spiders and jellyfish kill hundreds. Aquatic venomous animals include sea-snakes, fish, jellyfish, corals, cone shells, blue-ringed octopuses and sea urchins. Specific antidotes - hyperimmune serum antivenoms - are manufactured for serious envenoming. Adrenaline (epinephrine) is essential treatment for anaphylaxis. Cardiorespiratory and kidney failure require supportive treatment. Surgical intervention is rarely needed. Prevention is all important; community education can reduce risk by encouraging the use of protective clothing, lights after dark, bed nets and urgent medical treatment rather than traditional remedies.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.mpmed.2015.11.001

Type

Journal article

Journal

Medicine (United Kingdom)

Publication Date

01/02/2016

Volume

44

Pages

120 - 124