Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 virus infection cases are characterized by sustained immune activation during influenza pandemics. Seasonal flu data suggest that immune mediators could be modified by wave-related changes. Our aim was to determine the behavior of soluble and cell-related mediators in two waves at the epicenter of the 2009 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Leukocyte surface activation markers were studied in serum from peripheral blood samples, collected from the 1(st) (April-May, 2009) and 2(nd) (October 2009-February 2010) pandemic waves. Patients with confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 virus infection (H1N1), influenza-like illness (ILI) or healthy donors (H) were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were elevated in H1N1 patients from the 2(nd) pandemic wave. Additionally, the frequency of helper and cytotoxic T cells was reduced during the 1(st) wave, whereas CD69 expression in helper T cells was increased in the 2(nd) wave for both H1N1 and ILI patients. In contrast, CD62L expression in granulocytes from the ILI group was increased in both waves but in monocytes only in the 2(nd) wave. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM)-1 expression was elevated only in H1N1 patients at the 1(st) wave. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that during the 2009 influenza pandemic a T cell activation phenotype is observed in a wave-dependent fashion, with an expanded activation in the 2(nd) wave, compared to the 1(st) wave. Conversely, granulocyte and monocyte activation is infection-dependent. This evidence collected at the pandemic epicenter in 2009 could help us understand the differences in the underlying cellular mechanisms that drive the wave-related immune profile behaviors that occur against influenza viruses during pandemics.

Original publication




Journal article


Arch Med Res

Publication Date





651 - 658


Immune profiles, Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza, Pandemic waves, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Biomarkers, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Female, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza, Human, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-6, L-Selectin, Lectins, C-Type, Lymphocyte Activation, Male, Membrane Glycoproteins, Middle Aged, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Pandemics, Receptors, Immunologic, T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer, Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1, Young Adult