Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Protein kinase C (PKC)-θ is the only member of the PKC family that has the ability to translocate to the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells upon T cell receptor and MHC-II recognition. PKC-θ interacts functionally and physically with other downstream effector molecules to mediate T cell activation, differentiation, and migration. It plays a critical role in the generation of Th2 and Th17 responses and is less important in Th1 and CTL responses. PKC-θ has been recently shown to play a role in the nucleus, where it mediates inducible gene expression in the development of memory CD4+ T cells. This novel PKC (nPKC) can up-regulate HIV-1 transcription and PKC-θ activators such as Prostratin have been used in early HIV-1 reservoir eradication studies. The exact manner of the activation of virus by these compounds and the role of PKC-θ, particularly its nuclear form and its association with NF-κB in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, needs further precise elucidation especially given the very important role of NF-κB in regulating transcription from the integrated retrovirus. Continued studies of this nPKC isoform will give further insight into the complexity of T cell signaling kinases.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Immunol

Publication Date





HIV-1, PKC theta, T cells, immunology, protein kinase C