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This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.idc.2012.03.006

Type

Journal article

Journal

Infect Dis Clin North Am

Publication Date

06/2012

Volume

26

Pages

207 - 223

Keywords

Animals, Antivenins, Bites and Stings, Cnidaria, Fishes, Poisonous, Hot Temperature, Humans, Insecta, Lizards, Snakes, Spiders, Venoms