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A series of phase I clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of plasmid DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara malaria vaccines. The vaccines each encoded a polyepitope string fused to whole Plasmodium falciparum TRAP antigen. Forty-three healthy adult volunteers received the vaccines alone or in DNA/MVA prime-boost combinations. The DNA vaccine was administered either intramuscularly by needle or intradermally by a needleless delivery device. The MVA vaccine was administered intradermally by needle. The vaccines were well-tolerated by all three routes and in various DNA/MVA immunisation regimes. There were no severe or serious adverse events.


Journal article



Publication Date





1995 - 2002


Adult, Amino Acid Sequence, Antigens, Protozoan, Avian Proteins, Epitopes, Eye Proteins, Female, Humans, Injections, Intramuscular, Liver, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Male, Middle Aged, Plasmids, Pruritus, Safety, Vaccines, DNA, Vaccinia virus, Viral Vaccines