Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Gene expression profiling was used to explore the role of Nef in HIV. Nef induces a transcriptional program in T cells that is 97% identical to that of anti-CD3 T cell activation. This program is inhibited in the presence of cyclosporin. A requirement for TCR zeta and ZAP-70 is demonstrated for formation of the complete profile. Among eight factors particular to the anti-CD3 activation profile are IL16 and YY1, negative regulators of HIV transcription. In contrast, Nef exclusively upregulates factors positively regulating HIV, including Tat-SF1, U1 SNRNP, and IRF-2. New genes associated with Nef include CDK9, the induction of which enhances Tat function. Thus, Nef acts as a master switch early in the viral life cycle, forcing an environment conducive to dynamic viral production.


Journal article



Publication Date





763 - 777


Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9, Cyclin-Dependent Kinases, Cyclosporine, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Products, nef, HIV-1, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, Jurkat Cells, Lymphocyte Activation, Membrane Proteins, Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocytes, Transcription, Genetic, Virulence, ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase, nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus