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Nasopharyngeal pneumococci were collected from 635 Spanish children aged 6 months to 6 years attending four primary healthcare centres (n = 276) or two hospital emergency rooms (n = 359); 36% of the children had received >/=1 dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Overall, the carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 31%, with no significant differences in carriage rates according to setting. Colonization with vaccine serotypes was significantly associated with the absence of PCV7 immunization (29.4% vs. 5.9%, p <0.001). Forty-seven per cent of all isolates were penicillin- and/or erythromycin-non-susceptible; 13 international antibiotic-resistant clones were represented among non-susceptible pneumococci and were similarly distributed among vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Microbiol Infect

Publication Date





797 - 801


Anti-Bacterial Agents, Carrier State, Child, Child, Preschool, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Erythromycin, Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Humans, Infant, Meningococcal Vaccines, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Molecular Epidemiology, Nasopharynx, Penicillins, Pneumococcal Infections, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Spain, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Vaccination