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Eosinophils are key effector cells mediating airway inflammation and exacerbation in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. They are present in increased number and activation state in the airway mucosa and lumen. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the key eosinophil growth factor that is thought to play a role in eosinophil priming and activation. However, the mechanism of these effects is still not fully understood. The anti-IL-5 antibody mepolizumab reduces eosinophil counts in the airway modestly but has a large beneficial effect on the frequency of exacerbations of severe eosinophilic asthma, suggesting that reduction in eosinophil priming and activation is of central mechanistic importance. In this study, we used the therapeutic effect of mepolizumab and single cell RNAseq to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil priming and activation by IL-5. We demonstrated that IL-5 is a dominant driver of eosinophil priming and plays multifaceted roles in eosinophil function. It enhances eosinophil responses to other stimulators of migration, survival and activation by activating PI3K, MAPK and p38 signal pathways. It also enhances the pro-fibrotic roles of eosinophils in airway remodeling via TGF-β pathway. These findings provide mechanistic understanding of eosinophil priming in severe eosinophilic asthma and the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-5 approaches in the disease.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.mucimm.2024.03.005

Type

Journal article

Journal

Mucosal immunology

Publication Date

03/2024

Addresses

Respiratory Medicine Unit and NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: jian.luo@ndm.ox.ac.uk.