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Haemorrhage from oesophageal varices is a life threatening emergency with a mortality rate in the order of 30%-50%. In the last three decades there have been many advances in the treatment and prevention of variceal bleeding. Over recent years the introduction of new pharmaceutical agents that reduce portal pressure, endoscopic variceal ligation, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and the availability of liver transplantation have further increased the therapeutic options available to the physician treating this disorder. This article reviews the literature regarding therapies available in the treatment of haemorrhage from oesophageal varices and provides guidelines to aid the physicians in clinical decision making.


Journal article


Postgrad Med J

Publication Date





75 - 81


Algorithms, Catheterization, Esophageal and Gastric Varices, Esophagoscopy, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Humans, Hypertension, Portal, Liver Transplantation, Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic, Risk Factors, Sclerotherapy, Secondary Prevention