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<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Convincing correlates of protective immunity against tuberculosis have been elusive. In BALB/c mice, intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus expressing<jats:named-content xmlns:xlink="" content-type="genus-species" xlink:type="simple">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</jats:named-content>antigen 85A (adenovirus-85A) induces protective lower respiratory tract immunity against pulmonary challenge with<jats:named-content xmlns:xlink="" content-type="genus-species" xlink:type="simple">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</jats:named-content>, while intradermal immunization with adenovirus-85A does not. Here we report that intranasal immunization with adenovirus-85A induces expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR6 on lung CD8 T lymphocytes, which is maintained for at least 3 months. CXCR6-positive antigen-specific T cell numbers are increased among bronchoalveolar lavage-recoverable cells. Similarly, intranasal immunization with recombinant antigen 85A with adjuvant induces CXCR6 expression on lung CD4 cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, while a synthetic ESAT6<jats:sub>1–20</jats:sub>peptide with adjuvant induces CXCR6 expression in C57BL/6 mice. Parenteral immunization fails to do so. Upregulation of CXCR6 is accompanied by a transient elevation of serum CXCL16 after intranasal immunization, and lung cells cultured<jats:italic>ex vivo</jats:italic>from mice immunized intranasally show increased production of CXCL16. Administration of CXCL16 and cognate antigen intranasally to mice previously immunized parenterally increases the number of antigen-specific T lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage-recoverable population, which mediates inhibition of the early growth of<jats:named-content xmlns:xlink="" content-type="genus-species" xlink:type="simple">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</jats:named-content>after challenge. We conclude that expression of CXCR6 on lung T lymphocytes is a correlate of local protective immunity against<jats:named-content xmlns:xlink="" content-type="genus-species" xlink:type="simple">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</jats:named-content>after intranasal immunization and that CXCR6 and CXCL16 play an important role in the localization of T cells within lung tissue and the bronchoalveolar lavage-recoverable compartment.</jats:p>

Original publication




Journal article


Infection and Immunity


American Society for Microbiology

Publication Date





3328 - 3337