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The management of asthma has changed fundamentally during the past two decades. Precise assessment and phenotyping are now required to establish individually targeted treatment with disease-modifying anti-asthmatic drugs (DMAADs). Patients with asthma are often managed by primary care doctors or non-respiratory specialists in secondary care. However, the implementation of complex asthma guidelines in non-specialised care remains a challenge. There is a need for easy-to-understand, concise guides for general practice. In this Viewpoint, we propose a one-page practical guide for asthma management, titled A2BCD, with four components: dual assessment (A2) of asthma (ie, diagnosis and phenotype, plus asthma control and future risks); basic measures (B; eg, education, self-management skills, regular physical activity, and avoidance of asthma triggers); identification and treatment of comorbidities (C) of asthma (eg, chronic rhinosinusitis, obesity, or sleep apnoea); and phenotype-specific, individually targeted treatment with DMAADs (D), including individual inhalation schemes based on inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, biologics, and allergen immunotherapy.

Original publication




Journal article


The Lancet. Respiratory medicine

Publication Date



Department of Pneumology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany. Electronic address: