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Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) represents a spectrum of chronic progressive cholestatic diseases of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary system characterized by patchy inflammation, fibrosis, and stricturing. Primary and secondary SC must be distinguished given the different treatment modalities, risks of malignancy, and progression to portal hypertension, cirrhosis, and hepatic failure. This review focuses on secondary SC and the pathogenic mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, and novel imaging modalities that help to distinguish between these conditions. We explore the detailed use of cholangiography and ultrasound imaging techniques.

Original publication




Journal article


Endoscopic ultrasound

Publication Date





181 - 199


Medical Department I/Gastroenterology, Sana Hospital Lichtenberg, Berlin, Germany.