Blood biomarkers recommended for diagnosing and monitoring IgG4-related disease. Considerations from the ERN ReCONNET and collaborating partners.
Iaccarino L., Talarico R., Bozzalla-Cassione E., Burmester GR., Culver EL., Doria A., Ebbo M., van Hagen PM., Hachulla E., van Laar JAM., Lanzillotta M., Martinez-Valle F., Montecucco C., Monti S., Nalli C., Schleinitz N., Tincani A., Della-Torre E., Alexander T.
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic, clinically heterogenous fibroinflammatory condition, characterised by an accumulation of IgG4 secreting plasma cells in affected tissues and associated with increased serum IgG4 concentrations. Despite a growing recognition of the disease among clinicians from different specialties worldwide, its indolent nature, lack of a single diagnostic test and ability to mimic other malignant, infective and inflammatory conditions, makes the diagnosis challenging. As treatment options evolve, biomarkers correlating with disease activity, predicting prognosis and response to treatment are deemed required. A multidisciplinary panel of experts from the European Reference Network for Rare and Complex Connective tissue diseases (ERN ReCONNET) and affiliated international partners have performed a narrative literature search and reviewed the current evidence of biomarkers in IgG4-RD, including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and other soluble immune mediators, and cellular components of the immune system. The aim of this paper is to provide useful information for clinicians as to the utility of biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring IgG4-RD in clinical routine and sets out recommendations for clinical decision making.