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Real-world data on heterologous boosting with messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna) after inactivated COVID-19 vaccination are limited. We report mRNA-1273 boosting in heavily SARS-CoV-2-exposed Indonesian health-care workers who received a two-dose CoronaVac 6 months prior. Between August and November 2021, we measured SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG binding antibody (Bab) titers in all 304 participants, and neutralizing antibody titers in a random subset of 71 participants, on stored paired serum samples taken before and 28 days after a full-dose (100-μg) mRNA-1273 booster. At the time of the mRNA-1273 boost, 107 participants (35.2%) were not previously infected (naive vaccinated), 42 (13.8%) were infected before CoronaVac (infected vaccinated), and 155 (51.0%) were infected after CoronaVac (mostly during the Delta wave; vaccinated infected). At time of the mRNA-1273 boost, neutralizing antibodies could still be detected in 83% of participants (59 of 71) overall, 60% of naive-vaccinated participants (15 of 25), 95.7% of vaccinated-infected participants (22 of 23), and 95.7% of infected vaccinated participants (22 of 23). After the mRNA-1273 boost, 100% of participants (71 of 71) had neutralizing antibody activity, with increases in median Bab and neutralizing antibody serum titers of 9.3- and 27.0-fold overall, 89.1- and 2,803.4-fold in naive-vaccinated participants, 15.9- and 19.9-fold in infected-vaccinated participants, and 2.2- and 18.4-fold in vaccinated-infected participants. In the multivariable analysis, Bab titers after the mRNA-1273 boost were greatest in individuals who had a previous virus breakthrough post-CoronaVac, and when a longer time period (> 4 months) had elapsed since the most recent prior "spike antigen exposure" (either second CoronaVac or virus breakthrough). Overall, adverse reactions were mild and short-lived. In conclusion, a full-dose mRNA-1273 booster after CoronaVac was well tolerated and immunogenic after 28 days, including in those with very low antibody levels.

Original publication




Journal article


The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

Publication Date



Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


Suwarti, Fransiska