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B cells form a branch of the adaptive immune system, essential for the body's immune defense against pathogens. B cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of immune mediated liver diseases including autoimmune hepatitis, IgG4-related hepatobiliary disease, primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. B cells may initiate and maintain immune related liver diseases in several ways including the production of autoantibodies and the activation of T cells via antigen presentation or cytokine production. Here we comprehensively review current knowledge on B cell mechanisms in immune mediated liver diseases, exploring disease pathogenesis, B cell therapies, and novel treatment targets. We identify key areas where future research should focus to enable the development of targeted B cell therapies.

Original publication




Journal article


Frontiers in immunology

Publication Date





Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.


Liver, B-Lymphocytes, Animals, Humans, Mice, Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary, Cholangitis, Sclerosing, Liver Diseases, Hepatitis, Autoimmune, Immunoglobulin G, Autoantibodies, Immunotherapy, Clinical Trials as Topic