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Pleural effusions are a common respiratory condition with many etiologies. Nonmalignant etiologies explain most pleural effusions and despite being nonmalignant, they can be associated with poor survival; thus, it is important to understand their pathophysiology. Furthermore, diagnosing a benign pleural pathology always harbors the uncertainty of a false-negative diagnosis for physicians and pathologists, especially for the group of non-specific pleuritis. This review aims to present the role of the inflammation in the development of benign pleural effusions, with a special interest in their pathophysiology and their association with malignancy.

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