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The purpose of our indirect comparison was to explore the optimal switching time to noninvasive ventilation for further weaning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials comparing noninvasive weaning at spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) failure after meeting simple weaning criteria or at the pulmonary infection control window (PIC window) with conventional invasive weaning in COPD patients. Using conventional invasive weaning as a bridge, we indirectly compared the two noninvasive weaning strategies using the Bucher approach. Noninvasive weaning at SBT failure after meeting simple weaning criteria was associated with an extended duration of endotracheal mechanical ventilation (standardized mean difference 1.90, 95% CI 1.27-2.53, P < 0.001) compared with noninvasive weaning at the PIC window. No significant differences in mortality or the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia were observed. Our study suggests that the PIC window may be a promising switching time for noninvasive weaning in COPD patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Publication Date





132 - 139


Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China School of Medicine/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China.


Humans, Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Respiratory Insufficiency, Respiration, Artificial, Ventilator Weaning, Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated, Noninvasive Ventilation