Enhanced serum immunoglobulin G clearance in myotonic dystrophy-associated hypogammaglobulinemia: a case series and review of the literature.
Sasson SC., Corbett A., McLachlan AJ., Chen R., Adelstein SA., Riminton S., Limaye S.
BACKGROUND:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by muscle weakness, myotonia, cataracts, and cardiac conduction defects; it is associated with expansions of cytosine-thymine-guanine repeats in the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase. Hypogammaglobulinemia is a lesser known association of myotonic dystrophy type 1 and the underlying pathogenesis of immunoglobulin G depletion remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION:Here we report a kindred of two members (a 62-year-old white woman and a 30-year-old white man; mother and son) with myotonic dystrophy type 1-associated hypogammaglobulinemia associated with altered intravenous immunoglobulin elimination kinetics and reduced half-life. There was no history of systemic immunosuppression or renal or gastrointestinal protein loss in either patient, and no underlying case for a secondary immunodeficiency could be found. One patient required fortnightly intravenous immunoglobulin to maintain adequate trough immunoglobulin G levels. CONCLUSIONS:Ongoing study of myotonic dystrophy type 1-associated hypogammaglobulinemia using contemporary tools of genomic medicine may help to further delineate the pathogenesis of this entity.