Activation of the innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) signaling plays a pivotal role in the early induction of host defense following exposure to pathogens. Loss of intestinal innate immune regulation leading aberrant immune responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The precise role of PRRs in gut inflammation is not well understood, but considering their role as bacterial sensors and their genetic association with IBD, they likely contribute to dysregulated immune responses to the commensal microbiota. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the emerging functions of PRRs including their functional cross-talk, how they respond to mitochondrial damage, induce mitophagy or autophagy, and influence adaptive immune responses by interacting with the antigen presentation machinery. The review also summarizes some of the recent attempts to harness these pathways for therapeutic approaches in intestinal inflammation.
Frontiers in medicine
32 - 32
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.