Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing K. pneumoniae at a Single Institution: Insights into Endemicity from Whole-Genome Sequencing
Mathers AJ., Stoesser N., Sheppard AE., Pankhurst L., Giess A., Yeh AJ., Didelot X., Turner SD., Sebra R., Kasarskis A., Peto T., Crook D., Sifri CD.
ABSTRACTThe global emergence ofKlebsiella pneumoniaecarbapenemase-producingK. pneumoniae(KPC-Kp) multilocus sequence type ST258 is widely recognized. Less is known about the molecular and epidemiological details of non-ST258K. pneumoniaein the setting of an outbreak mediated by an endemic plasmid. We describe the interplay ofblaKPCplasmids andK. pneumoniaestrains and their relationship to the location of acquisition in a U.S. health care institution. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis was applied to KPC-Kpclinical isolates collected from a single institution over 5 years following the introduction ofblaKPCin August 2007, as well as two plasmid transformants. KPC-Kpfrom 37 patients yielded 16 distinct sequence types (STs). Two novel conjugativeblaKPCplasmids (pKPC_UVA01 and pKPC_UVA02), carried by the hospital index case, accounted for the presence ofblaKPCin 21/37 (57%) subsequent cases. Thirteen (35%) isolates represented an emergent lineage, ST941, which contained pKPC_UVA01 in 5/13 (38%) and pKPC_UVA02 in 6/13 (46%) cases. Seven (19%) isolates were the epidemic KPC-Kpstrain, ST258, mostly imported from elsewhere and not carrying pKPC_UVA01 or pKPC_UVA02. Using WGS-based analysis of clinical isolates and plasmid transformants, we demonstrate the unexpected dispersal ofblaKPCto many non-ST258 lineages in a hospital through spread of at least two novelblaKPCplasmids. In contrast, ST258 KPC-Kpwas imported into the institution on numerous occasions, with otherblaKPCplasmid vectors and without sustained transmission. Instead, a newly recognized KPC-Kpstrain, ST941, became associated with both novelblaKPCplasmids and spread locally, making it a future candidate for clinical persistence and dissemination.