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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, haematological malignancy, and immunosuppression for transplantation and autoimmune disorders have led to a large increase in immunocompromised patients. Neck masses are relatively common in this patient group and include both opportunistic and severe manifestations of common infections, benign hyperplasia, and primary or secondary malignancies. Although biopsy may be necessary for definitive diagnosis, features on cross-sectional imaging may suggest a specific diagnosis or limit the differential diagnosis and facilitate optimal patient management. This article will review critical aspects of neck anatomy, illustrate the spectrum of imaging features, and discuss the interpretative pearls and pitfalls when evaluating neck masses in immunocompromised patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Radiol

Publication Date





615 - 625


Bacterial Infections, Castleman Disease, Diagnosis, Differential, Female, Head and Neck Neoplasms, Humans, Immunocompromised Host, Male, Postoperative Complications, Transplantation