Impact of a clonal outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the development and evolution of bloodstream infections by K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli: an 11 year experience in Oxfordshire, UK.
Webster DP., Young BC., Morton R., Collyer D., Batchelor B., Turton JF., Maharjan S., Livermore DM., Bejon P., Cookson BD., Bowler ICJW.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were: (i) to describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in our population; (ii) to identify the potential source of this outbreak by examining antibiotic resistance trends in urocultures; (iii) to evaluate the contribution of this outbreak to resistance patterns over time in the two commonest Gram-negative blood culture isolates, namely K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli; and (iv) to assess risk factors for multidrug resistance and the impact of this resistance on mortality and length of stay. METHODS: We searched Microbiology and Patient Administration Service databases retrospectively and describe resistance trends in E. coli and K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Oxfordshire, UK, over an 11 year period. RESULTS: An outbreak of a multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae clone was identified and shown by multilocus sequence typing to belong to a novel sequence type designated ST490. This was associated with a sporadic change in resistance rates in K. pneumoniae BSIs with rates of multidrug resistance (defined as resistance to three or more antibiotic classes) reaching 40%. A case-control study showed prior antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for infection with this organism. During the same time period, rates of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. isolated from urocultures increased from 0.5% to almost 6%. By contrast, the rate of multidrug resistance in E. coli rose more steadily from 0% in 2000 to 10% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in resistance rates may be associated with outbreaks of resistant clones in K. pneumoniae. Changing resistance patterns may affect important health economic issues such as length of stay.