A metabolic perspective of the neutrophil life cycle: new avenues in immunometabolism
Thind MK., Uhlig HH., Glogauer M., Palaniyar N., Bourdon C., Gwela A., Lancioni CL., Berkley JA., Bandsma RHJ., Farooqui A.
Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells. Multiple mechanisms allow them to engage a wide range of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis and bioenergetics for mediating biological processes such as development in the bone marrow and antimicrobial activity such as ROS production and NET formation, inflammation and tissue repair. We first discuss recent work on neutrophil development and functions and the metabolic processes to regulate granulopoiesis, neutrophil migration and trafficking as well as effector functions. We then discuss metabolic syndromes with impaired neutrophil functions that are influenced by genetic and environmental factors of nutrient availability and usage. Here, we particularly focus on the role of specific macronutrients, such as glucose, fatty acids, and protein, as well as micronutrients such as vitamin B3, in regulating neutrophil biology and how this regulation impacts host health. A special section of this review primarily discusses that the ways nutrient deficiencies could impact neutrophil biology and increase infection susceptibility. We emphasize biochemical approaches to explore neutrophil metabolism in relation to development and functions. Lastly, we discuss opportunities and challenges to neutrophil-centered therapeutic approaches in immune-driven diseases and highlight unanswered questions to guide future discoveries.