Nanopore metagenomic sequencing of influenza virus directly from respiratory samples: diagnosis, drug resistance and nosocomial transmission
Xu Y., Lewandowski K., Downs L., Kavanagh J., Hender T., Lumley S., Jeffery K., Foster D., Sanderson N., Vaughan A., Morgan M., Vipond R., Carroll M., Peto T., Crook D., Walker S., Matthews P., Pullan S.
Background: Influenza virus presents a significant challenge to public health by causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Nanopore metagenomic sequencing has the potential to be deployed for near-patient testing, providing rapid diagnosis of infection, rationalising antimicrobial therapy, and supporting interventions for infection control. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of this sequencing approach as a routine laboratory test for influenza in clinical settings. Methods: We conducted Nanopore metagenomic sequencing for 180 respiratory samples from a UK hospital during the 2018/19 influenza season, and compared results to routine molecular diagnostic testing. We investigated drug resistance, genetic diversity, and nosocomial transmission using influenza sequence data. Results: Metagenomic sequencing was 83% (75/90) sensitive and 93% (84/90) specific for detecting influenza A viruses compared with the diagnostic standard (Cepheid Xpress/BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel). We identified a H3N2 genome with the oseltamivir resistant S331R mutation in the NA protein, potentially associated with the emergence of a distinct intra-subtype reassortant. Whole genome phylogeny refuted suspicions of a transmission cluster in the infectious diseases ward, but identified two other clusters that likely reflected nosocomial transmission, associated with a predominant strain circulating in the community. We also detected a range of other potentially pathogenic viruses and bacteria from the metagenome. Conclusion: Nanopore metagenomic sequencing can detect the emergence of novel variants and drug resistance, providing timely insights into antimicrobial stewardship and vaccine design. Generation of full genomes can contribute to the investigation and management of nosocomial outbreaks.