Terrestrial venomous snakes and snakebites in the Arab countries of the Middle East.
Amr ZS., Abu Baker MA., Warrell DA.
The 12 Arab countries of the Middle East are inhabited by 21 species of terrestrial venomous snakes of varying medical importance. This review considers these species, consisting of 16 viperids, 3 elapids and 2 atractaspidines. Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen report the largest numbers of snakebites and envenomings. Accessible literature in English and Arabic on venomous snakes and snakebites and available antivenoms is reviewed. Clinical effects include potentially misleading symptoms attributable to anxiety and traditional pre-hospital treatments.