Dupilumab Is Effective in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Uncontrolled GINA-Defined Type 2 Asthma Irrespective of an Allergic Asthma Phenotype.
Rabe KF., FitzGerald JM., Bateman ED., Castro M., Pavord ID., Maspero JF., Busse WW., Izuhara K., Daizadeh N., Ortiz B., Pandit-Abid N., Rowe PJ., Deniz Y.
BackgroundThe Global Initiative for Asthma report recommends consideration of add-on biologics for patients with type 2 inflammation (blood eosinophils ≥150 cells/μL, fractional exhaled nitric oxide [Feno] ≥20 parts per billion or allergic asthma) whose asthma cannot be controlled by high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. In QUEST (NCT02414854), add-on dupilumab versus placebo was efficacious in patients with uncontrolled, moderate to severe asthma, including those with eosinophils greater than or equal to 150 cells/μL and/or Feno greater than or equal to 25 parts per billion.ObjectiveTo assess dupilumab efficacy in patients with a type 2 phenotype in the presence or absence of allergic asthma phenotype.MethodsPatients aged 12 years or older received add-on dupilumab 200/300 mg versus matched placebo every 2 weeks for 52 weeks. Allergic asthma phenotype was defined as baseline serum total IgE greater than or equal to 30 IU/mL and 1 or more perennial aeroallergen-specific IgE level greater than or equal to 0.35 kU/L. Annualized rate of severe asthma exacerbations and changes from study baseline in prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV1 were evaluated in patients with allergic and nonallergic phenotype with baseline blood eosinophils greater than or equal to 150 cells/μL and/or Feno greater than or equal to 20 parts per billion.ResultsOf 1902 patients in QUEST, 83.3% had eosinophils and/or Feno above Global Initiative for Asthma thresholds; 56.9% had evidence for allergic asthma. Dupilumab significantly reduced the rate of severe asthma exacerbations in patients with (48.8%) and without (64.0%) evidence of allergic asthma and improved prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV1 in patients with elevated type 2 biomarkers, irrespective of whether they showed evidence of an allergic asthma phenotype.ConclusionsIn patients with type 2 biomarkers over Global Initiative for Asthma thresholds, dupilumab significantly reduced exacerbations and improved lung function. Efficacy was not impacted by allergic status.