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The mechanisms associated to the development of neurodegeneration due to pesticide exposure are not clear yet. In this study we evaluated how permethrin pesticide (PERM) can influence the Nurr1 gene and protein expression, and if a pro-oxidant activity of the pesticide contributes to up-regulation of Nurr1 in a dopaminergic cell line. Incubation of PC12 cells with 1μM PERM for 72h, leads to over expression of Nurr1 gene. This effect occurs with both corn oil and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) used to solubilize the toxicant. In order to investigate if the Nurr1 up-regulation induced by PERM, was associated to the pro-oxidant activity of the pesticide, anti-oxidants as glutathione (GSH), tocotrienols (TOC) and Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) were tested. RT-PCR of Nurr1 showed that its up-regulation was significantly reduced in the presence of antioxidants, especially by addition of ERW. Western-blot analysis reveals that ERW was able to counterbalance the up-regulation of Nurr1 protein induced by permethrin exposure.

Original publication




Journal article


Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP

Publication Date





51 - 57


Schools of Advanced Studies, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy.


Neurons, PC12 Cells, Animals, Rats, Dopamine, Permethrin, Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase, Antioxidants, Oxidants, Insecticides, Up-Regulation, Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 2