The dual face of parathyroid hormone and prostaglandins in the osteoimmune system
Agas D., Marchetti L., Capitani M., Sabbieti MG.
<jats:p> The microenvironment of bone marrow, an extraordinarily heterogeneous and dynamic system, is populated by bone and immune cells, and its functional dimension has been at the forefront of recent studies in the field of osteoimmunology. The interaction of both marrow niches supports self-renewal, differentiation, and homing of the hematopoietic stem cells and provides the essential regulatory molecules for osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis. Impaired signaling within the niches results in a pathological tableau and enhances disease, including osteoporosis and arthritis, or the rejection of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Discovering the anabolic players that control these mechanisms has become warranted. In this review, we focus on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and prostaglandins (PGs), potent molecular mediators, both of which carry out a multitude of functions, particularly in bone lining cells and T cells. These two regulators proved to be promising therapeutic agents when strictly clinical protocols on dose treatments were applied. </jats:p>