Enhanced T-cell immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines boosted by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara in humans.
McConkey SJ., Reece WHH., Moorthy VS., Webster D., Dunachie S., Butcher G., Vuola JM., Blanchard TJ., Gothard P., Watkins K., Hannan CM., Everaere S., Brown K., Kester KE., Cummings J., Williams J., Heppner DG., Pathan A., Flanagan K., Arulanantham N., Roberts MTM., Roy M., Smith GL., Schneider J., Peto T., Sinden RE., Gilbert SC., Hill AVS.
In animals, effective immune responses against malignancies and against several infectious pathogens, including malaria, are mediated by T cells. Here we show that a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime of DNA either intramuscularly or epidermally, followed by intradermal recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), induces high frequencies of interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting, antigen-specific T-cell responses in humans to a pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen, thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP). These responses are five- to tenfold higher than the T-cell responses induced by the DNA vaccine or recombinant MVA vaccine alone, and produce partial protection manifest as delayed parasitemia after sporozoite challenge with a different strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Such heterologous prime-boost immunization approaches may provide a basis for preventative and therapeutic vaccination in humans.